Preheat the oven to 425 degrees.
Pat the chicken dry with paper towels and place it in a large (13 x 16-inch) roasting pan. Sprinkle the cavity generously with salt and place the lemon, 2 sprigs of thyme, and 2 sprigs of rosemary in the cavity. Tie the legs together with kitchen string and tuck the wings under the body. Brush the outside with the butter and sprinkle generously with salt and pepper.
In a large bowl, combine the carrots, potatoes, onion, garlic, ⅓ cup olive oil, 1 teaspoon salt, and 1/2 teaspoon pepper. Transfer the vegetables to the pan with the chicken and place the remaining sprigs of thyme and rosemary on the vegetables.
Roast for 20 minutes, then reduce the heat to 350 degrees and roast for 40 to 50 minutes, tossing the vegetables in the pan juices from time to time. Roast until an instant-read thermometer registers 165 degrees in the breast and 175 degrees in the thigh. Leaving the oven on, transfer the chicken to a carving board, cover it loosely with aluminum foil, and allow to rest for 12 to 15 minutes.
Meanwhile, add the asparagus to the pan, tossing them with the other vegetables. Roast for 10 to 12 minutes, until the asparagus are crisp-tender. Discard the herb branches, carve the chicken, and serve with the vegetables and pan juices.
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